Vocabulary

  • Counting

    There are two different numbering systems that are used by Koreans. The first numbering system is used when counting, or when only speaking of the numbers themselves. The first ten numbers in this system are as follows:

    1 : hanah

    2 : dool

    3 : set

    4 : net

    5 : dasot

    6 : yasot

    7 : ilgop

    8 : yadol

    9 : ahop

    10 : yool

    The stress in “hanah”, “dasot”, and “yasot” is on the first syllable, in “ilgop”, “yadol”, and “ahop” on the second. In counting cadence in TaeKwonDo, this is so emphasized that the other syllable frequently almost disappears (e.g., “han”, “das”, “yos”, “lgop”, “hop”, etc.).

  • Order

    The other numbering system (which is of Chinese origin) is used in most other cases and is often used where Americans would use ordinal numbers (such as “first”, “second”, etc …). For example, this second numbering system is used when describing a person’s rank: a first degree black belt would be an “il dan”. The first ten numbers in this numbering system are as follows:

    1 : il

    2 : ee

    3 : sahm

    4 : sah

    5 : oh

    6 : ryook

    7 : chil

    8 : pal

    9 : koo

    10 : ship

    The final `l’ in “chil” and “pal” isn’t rounded, like an American `l’ …. It’s a much shorter sound, sort of like the initial `l’ in “let”, but even shorter. It’s not like the `l’ in “ball”.

    When pronouncing the word “ship”, you must not emphasize the “sh” sound. It’s almost more like “sip” with a sort of a lisp.

    Even though this second numbering system may correspond to ordinal numbers in English in some cases, these are not ordinal numbers. Koreans use a separate set of words for ordinal numbers.

  • Hand Attacks

    bahro chirugi : straight (return) punch

    bahndae chirugi : reverse punch

    gullgi chirugi : hook punch

    yung seuk chirugi : combination (consecutive) punch

    doo bun chirugi : double punch

    sae bun chirugi : triple punch

    sahnkeut chirugi : spearfinger thrust

    sewo chirugi : vertical punch

    gotjang chirugi : vertical fist punch

    dolrya chirugi : round punch

    dwijubo chirugi : upset punch

    soteum chirugi : spring punch

    nehryuh chirugi : downward punch

    chi chirugi : uppercut punch

    jae chuh chirugi : upper punch (also “jae chin chirugi”)

    doo joomuk chirugi : doublefist punch

    dikootja chirugi : `U’ (or `C’) shaped punch (hi-lo)

    sosum chirugi : double uppercut punch

    keumgang chirugi : diamond-shaped punch

    nalgeh chirugi : wing-shaped punch

  • Blocks

    bahkat palmahk mahki : outer forearm block

    ahn palmahk mahki : inner forearm block

    sahng palmahk mahki : twin forearm block

    ahnuro mahki : inward block

    bahkuro mahki : outward block

    ahrae mahki : low block

    cho kyo mahki : rising block

    daebi mahki : guarding block

    bituro mahki : twisting block

    gahwi mahki : scissors block

    keumgang mahki : diamond-shaped (Hercules) block

    gutjha mahki : `9′-shaped block (cross block)

    yeot pero mahki : `X’-shaped block (also “kyo cha mahki”)

    santeul mahki : mountain-shaped block (also “osanteul mahki”)

    weh santeul mahki : part mountain-shaped block

    utgallruyuh mahki : cross block (also “utgiruh mahki”)

    hechuh mahki : scattered block (or wedge block)

    hwang so mahki : ox (or “bull”) block

    bahtangsahn nooluh mahki : pressing down block

    deuluh oll ryu mahki : upward scooping fist block

  • Kicks

    cha olligi : stretching kick

    jillo chagi : thrusting kick

    ahp chagi : front kick

    yup chagi : side kick

    dolrya chagi : round (roundhouse) kick

    dwi chagi : back kick

    bahndae dolrya chagi : reverse round kick (“hook kick” for some styles)

    dwi dolrya chagi : back round kick (“hook kick” for some styles)

    gullgi chagi : hook kick (also “golcho chagi” or “golro chagi”)

    bahndall chagi : crescent kick (literally “half moon kick”)

    hoohrio chagi : wheel kick

    beet chagi : slant (or instep) kick

    bahn dolrya chagi : half round kick (also “instep kick”)

    beakya chagi : slap kick

    nehryuh jeek gi : ax kick; literally “downward foot strike”

    hwe jun chagi : swing kick

    mil a chagi : pushing kick (also “mil gi chagi”)

    gokwang i chagi : pickax kick

    pyojuk chagi : target kick

    dolmyo chagi : spinning kick

    tdwim yah chagi : jumping kick

    yung seuk chagi : combination (consecutive) kick

    meekulmyu chagi : sliding kick (also “mikulgi chagi”)

    goollruh chagi : rolling kick

    natgeh tdwim yu chagi : hopping kick

    nalla chagi : flying kick (also “goong jung chagi”)

    gahwi chagi : scissors kick

    illja chagi : linear kick

    japgo chagi : holding (grasp) kick

    ohpo chagi : falling kick (leg sweep)

    nachu oh chagi : stooping kick

  • Stances

    sohgi : stance

    jah seh : posture (or stance) [used instead of “sohgi” in some styles]

    ahnjun sohgi : sitting stance

    ahp sohgi : front stance

    ahp koo bi sohgi : front bent knee stance (also just “ahp koo bi”)

    dwi sohgi : back stance

    dwi koo bi sohgi : back bent knee stance (also just “dwi koo bi”)

    beom sohgi : cat (or tiger) stance (also “goyang-i sohgi”)

    kuht neun sohgi : walking stance

    juchoom sohgi : horseback riding stance (“kima sohgi” in some styles)

    mot sohgi : fighting stance

    kyorugi sohgi : sparring stance

    choon bi sohgi : ready stance (also “pyeonhi sohgi”)

    gibon sohgi : basic stance

    guande sohgi : middle stance

    naranhee sohgi : parallel stance

    niun ja sohgi : `L’-stance

    gojang sohgi : fixed (lower-back) stance

    sa sun sohgi : diagonal stance

    gyuttari sohgi : fixed balance (or bent knee) stance

    koh ah sohgi : crossed foot stance

    kyo cha sohgi : `X’-stance

    mo ah sohgi : close stance

    joong-rib sohgi : neutral stance

    dong yuk sohgi : dynamic stance

    cha yun sohgi : natural stance

    chagi sohgi : kicking stance

    hahktari sohgi : crane stance (also “ue bal sohgi”)

  • Commands

    cha ryuht : attention

    choon bi : ready

    bah ro : return to starting position

    dwi uro dorah : about face

    dorah : turn

    elosoh : stand

    gomahn : stop (also “mum cho”)

    geuk gi hyang ha yoh : face the flag

    jwa woo hyang woo : face each other

    sah bum nim keh : face instructor/master

    sun bae nim keh : face senior student

    simsa kwan nim keh : face examiner/tester

    dobok dahnjung : fix your uniform

    dhee dahnjung : fix your belt

    hai sahn : class dismissed (also “hae cho”)

    jonglee : line up (also “ji hap” and “jung yul”)

    kyung nae : bow

    ahnjoe : sit

    kool o angi : kneel (kneeling)

    bah ro angi : sit in lotus position (yoga posture)

    bahl bah kwah : switch your stance (switch your feet)

    koo ryung op see : in your own time

    seijak : begin

    shiuh : relax

    kalyeo : break (or stop)

    kae sok : continue